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Re: [Xen-devel] hypervisor/firmware calling conventions (Was: Re: [PATCH 1/4] xen/arm: basic PSCI support, implement cpu_on)

On Thu, Apr 11, 2013 at 02:32:28PM +0100, Ian Campbell wrote:
> Adding Charles and the l-a-k list which I hadn't noticed wasn't CC'd
> before. Are there other lists which would be useful to include?
> On Tue, 2013-04-09 at 14:57 +0100, Ian Campbell wrote:
> > > +        if ( !hsr.iss )
> > > +            return do_trap_psci(regs);

Have you seen this work?

Reading the specs, I thought that the SMC immediate is not available in
the HSR in ARMv7, or when the caller is AArch32.  ARMv7 specifies these
bits as UNK/SBZP, and the A15 TRM doesn't seem seem to specify any
extra information.

Otherwise, you would need to go examine the trapped instruction in
guest memory.  This is even less easy than it sounds.

> > Ugh, using ISS==0 for this interface is a bit unfortunate, who
> > arbitrates this namespace?

Nobody, officially.  ARM is working to promulgate some standards in
this area, but there is plenty of pre-existing firmware and software
out there with non-standardised interfaces and it's hard to predict
adoption timescales.  I believe nothing is published relating to this
just yet.

> Xen chose to use a non-0 immediate for its hypercalls so we are lucky
> that we don't have to play tricks to distinguish PSCI calls from
> hypercalls but it seems to me that either there needs to be some
> semi-formal registry for smv/hvc immediates to avoid clashes or that
> interfaces need to pick a random non-zero number to try and minimise the
> chances of a clash.
> Or maybe it gets pushed down a layer and the registry is of r0/x0
> function ids and the immediate argument is generally ignored?
> But in general we need some way for interfaces provided by hypervisors
> and secure mode monitors to safely co-exist, I think, both for the case
> where the hypervisor is implementing a shim for a secure mode interface
> (i.e. implementing PSCI with hvc) and for the case where there are
> multiple interfaces at each layer (e.g. hypervisors sometimes want to
> implement foreign hypervisor interfaces and I can easily imagine other
> firmware level interfaces than PSCI coming into existence in the
> future).

For PSCI and similar firmware functionality, we envisage multiplexing
all interfaces based on a function number in r0, with arguments and
results constrained to r0-r7.  For PSCI, we specify SMC #0/HVC #0 as the
call mechanism.

For now, there is no global management of the r0 namespace, which
is why for PSCI we don't make static assumptions about the numbers
on the client side.  Instead, the function number for each PSCI function
is passed in the DT.  This means that the firmware or hypervisor can
allocate the numbers as appropriate to avoid clashes.

In general, this is likely to be the best approach for Linux until a
standard probing interface exists.

In theory we could define a Xen-specific call mechanism for PSCI, but
that should be avoided unless it is absolutely unavoidable.  It sounds
like the different SMC comment field means that we don't need to
worry for Xen/PSCI coexistence specifically, assuming that the hypervisor
can read it reliably.

> In the specific case of PSCI I couldn't actually find the calling
> convention (i.e. the specific registers to use). I suspect I'm just
> looking at an old version of the spec...

This is indeed vague in the existing draft.  An update should appear
soon -- Charles can comment on the current status.


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